Summer Nights

Let's make the world a better place using digital technologies!

Using the Ubuntu mirrors closest to you

You need to edit /etc/apt/sources.lst file.

  • First of all, find a mirror closes to you, which you know is also fastest for you, from the list of Ubuntu mirrors at Ubuntu Wiki. There are tools to benchmark the server speed, e.g., see netselect.
  • Copy the link of your selected mirror and change appropriately the sources.lst file.
  • As an example, have a look at my sources.lst file below with only Swiss mirrors used:

    deb gutsy main restricted
    deb gutsy-updates main restricted
    deb gutsy-security main restricted

    deb gutsy universe multiverse
    deb gutsy-updates universe multiverse
    deb gutsy-security universe multiverse

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Increasing the disk size in andLinux

  1. Stop the andLinux service and make sure no colinux daemon is running.
  2. Download dd for windows and put in the same folder as base.drv or wherever your “/” drive image is located.
  3. The following command extends a 4 GB partition to 16 GB:
    dd bs=16384 if=/dev/zero of=base.drv seek=262144 count=786432
  4. The seek=262144 tells dd that it should start filling zeros starting from this address which is the size of your 4GB image divided by 16384. In my case it is
    4294967296/16384=262144 number of 16K blocks.
  5. The count=786432 tells dd that it should fill 12GB of zeros. This is just (1024)^3/16384 number of blocks.
  6. After it has increased the file size, start the andLinux service and at the command prompt in Linux, type the following:
    apt-get install ext2resize
    ext2online /dev/cobd0
  7. Now you should have the new expanded hard disk image. To check, type:
    at the command prompt and you will see that /dev/cobd0 is now new size.
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andLinux Error: “cannot connect to X server”

If you encounter this error, you should check the following:

  • that the given IP address, which indicates your display, is reachable, either using ping, telnet, or some other approach
  • that Xming.exe is running. You can check it using Windows Task Manager.
  • If everything seems working, then you may try killing the Xming.exe from Task Manager and restarting it using the following command:
    <PATH-TO>\Xming.exe :0 -dpi 85 -clipboard -notrayicon -c -multiwindow -reset -terminate -unixkill -logfile Xming.log
    It solved this problem for me.
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Installing QEMU on andLinux

Follow these steps:

apt-get install gcc-3.4
ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-3.4 /usr/bin/gcc34
cd /usr/src
apt-get install libsdl1.2-dev
apt-get install libsdl1.2debian-all
tar -xvzf qemu-0.9.1.tar.gz
cd qemu-0.9.1
./configure (This selects all available targets)
make install

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Solving: Samba not working in andLinux with domain users

If Samba share fails to mount during boot-up and you are a domain user, do the following:

  1. Edit /etc/smbpasswd
  2. Change the first line to username = <Domain>/<Username>. e.g., devel-net/andy
  3. The password in the second line should be the domain password

Now restart the andLinux service. The share should mount okay.

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Configure default command-line programs for Ubuntu

Use the following command to configure default command-line programs, e.g., pager, editor, ssh, etc.:

update-alternatives --all

For example:
update-alternatives --config editor
allows you to change the default editor nano in ubuntu, to e.g., emacs, if installed.

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Interactively customizing emacs

Execute the following command:
M - x customize <ENTER>
to customize emacs in a user-friendly way.

How to enable syntax-highlighting:

  1. Search for Faces group and press Enter on Go to Groupt.
  2. Next go to Font Lock group.
  3. Toggle Global Font Lock Mode to on to enable global syntax-highlighting.
  4. Use Save for Future Sessions to save the changes.
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Cygwin Installation

Step followed:

  1. Download and run Cygwin setup.
  2. Select Unix/Binary file types during installation.
  3. Select appropriate development packages, at least the gcc, make, automake, and autoconf.
  4. In Editors, choose emacs if you like to use it.
  5. Install ruby. You will need it for Terminator, a GPL terminal emulator.
  6. Complete the Cygwin installation. It will take some time until it downloads and installs the required packages.
  7. Go to My Computer -> right click -> Properties -> Advanced(tab) -> Environment Variables and create a new system-wide variable named “CYGWIN”. Give it the value “ntsec tty”. ntsec is for file permissions, and tty is needed for emacs to function properly.
  8. Edit the PATH variable in the Environment Variables and add “C:\Cygwin\bin”, assuming it is the correction Cygwin location.
  9. When you first get into the Cygwin, type the following commands to make appropriate passwd and group files:
    mkpasswd -l -c > /etc/passwd
    mkgroup -l -d > /etc/group
  10. Download and install Terminator. You have desktop icon as well but it does not work for me. So, if this is also the case for you, enter terminator at the command prompt. You shall have terminator running.

This installs a basic cygwin system with a decent terminal in the form of Terminator.

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Cygwin Installation: mkpasswd and mkgroup issue

You get this message when you start Cygwin:

Your group is currently “mkpasswd”. This indicates that
the /etc/passwd (and possibly /etc/group) files should be rebuilt.
See the man pages for mkpasswd and mkgroup then, for example, run
mkpasswd -l [-d] > /etc/passwd
mkgroup -l [-d] > /etc/group
Note that the -d switch is necessary for domain users.

Issue the following commands to fix it:

mkpasswd -l -c > /etc/passwd

mkgroup -l -d > /etc/group

It will create a local user based on the current logged on user. The groups will be fetched from the domain. For the local installation the “-d” option can be omitted from mkgroup command.

Thanks to sinewalker for this tip.

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Howto: Solving “Ubuntu Installation Left Messed-Up Bootloader”

Yesterday, I installed Ubuntu 8.04 to my second SATA II drive. I explicitly selected that grub be installed to second drive. After restarting, the computer failed to boot in both windows or linux and “GRUB” continued flooding on the screen. Here is how to solve this:

  1. Fix the XP boot record first: Boot with windows XP CD and when prompted press “R” to enter recovery console. Once in the console, enter:
    to fix the master boot record of windows partition.
  2. Reboot the computer into windows and download the latest version of grub4dos. Do not be alarmed by the name, it is equally useful for XP NTFS partitions. Extract to a convenient location.
  3. In windows, go to Control Panel->System->Advanced->Startup and Recovery, click Settings
  4. In System Startup, click Edit
  5. Add the following line to the end of the opened (boot.ini) file:
    C:\grldr="Start GRUB4DOS"
    and save the file.
  6. Copy grldr to the same location where boot.ini is located. It is usually found in C: drive and is a hidden and system file. You need to make it visible using appropriate folder view options.
  7. Download and install Ext2IFS for windows. Run the program and map ext3 based Ubuntu partition into windows.
  8. Copy menu.lst from /boot/grub from the Ubuntu partition to the same location as windows boot.ini file.
  9. Open menu.lst in wordpad and edit the following lines to your need:
    title Ubuntu 8.04, kernel 2.6.24-16-generic
    root (hd1,0)
    It was hd0,0 and I had to make it hd1,0 to refer to the second harddisk. This should boot Ubuntu fine, but you may want to make other changes in menu.lst file to your needs. Save and close menu.lst file.
  10. Now reboot your computer, press F8 at reboot to get to OS choice menu. Select Start GRUB4DOS. Now you should see the usual grub menu. Select the first choice for Ubuntu and this should boot you in Ubuntu.
  11. If you are unable to get to grub menu after selecting Start GRUB4DOS from the menu, please check again the location of grldr and menu.lst files. You may try putting them in the C: root as well, if boot.ini location is different.
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